Barrels & Racking:

Modern Systems, Historic Preservation and Refurbished Options Producing Optimal Results

By: Cheryl Gray

In 1879, distiller Frederick Stitzel patented a revolutionary method that put a new spin on how barrels for spirits and other crafted drinks are stored.

  Some 150 years later, the practice of racking barrels, also known as ricking, is an industry-standard. Placing barrels on their sides, rather than upright, and supporting them underneath with either timber or metal, increases air circulation and space.  Racking keeps pressure off barrel staves, a problem that Stitzel and other early distillers learned could result in losing a barrel’s precious contents through leakage.

Space to Breathe

  Western Square Industries, headquartered in Stockton, California, has been in business for 43 years and is among the global leaders in its field. The company originally catered to the agriculture and livestock industries, specializing in two main products, steel gates and corrals. Western Square Industries now manufactures a broad range of barrel racking systems for distillers, breweries, wineries, meaderies and cideries. It serves clients across the United States, with a significant client base in California, Texas and the Eastern U.S.  

  President and CEO Trygve Mikkelsen took over the company in 1993 and quickly recognized its potential in manufacturing barrel racks. Mikkelsen told Beverage Master Magazine about one of the company’s most popular barrel systems for distillers expanding their operations.

  “The Barrel Master is our most popular model for distilleries in growth since the user can mix and match sizes of barrels in a safe forklift-able stacking system. The Barrel Master can also be bought with the barrels sitting on wheels for easy rotation if desired. This is possible because there is no weight on each barrel.”

  The Barrel Master 30/53 allows barrels ranging in size from 30 to 53 gallons to be stored on the same rack. The rack-on-rack design allows barrels to be more visible and accessible. There is also the opportunity to stack barrels higher without compromising stability. An optional wheel design provides 180-degree barrel rotation in either direction. Unlike other systems, which are more like pallets between barrels and require a uniform barrel shape and size, Mikkelson said Barrel Master’s rack-on-rack function eliminates any barrel putting pressure on another below. The rack also features a storage-saving design in that it can be nested into a stack when empty.  The racking system is manufactured from stainless steel and is available in several color and coating options.

  Mikkelsen said breweries and distilleries also use his company’s seven-inch two-barrel racks and another product known as Big Foot. Sometimes, Mikkelsen said, full access is less important than space.  In that case, clients choose the company’s low-profile rack, known as two-barrel four-inch racks.

Tradition and Preservation

  While newly established distilleries may look to modern-day solutions for ricking, the name Brown-Forman evokes a history like no other, including that it is the only distillery company in the world to make its own barrels, which are stored in a range of distilleries, some with warehouses and barrel ricking systems dating back to the late 1800s.

  When a young Jack Daniel first learned the art of making whiskey under the tutelage of a soon-to-be ex-slave-turned-master-distiller, Nathan Nearest Green, neither could have imagined that the whiskey created would become synonymous with the tradition and preservation of some of the most historic distilleries in the world. Brown-Forman is the keeper of that tradition, in the form of four distilleries, three in Kentucky and, of course, the Jack Daniel’s Distillery in Tennessee. 

  With some 130 years of warehouses spread across four distilleries, the barrel ricking found in any given Brown-Forman warehouse depends upon many variables. Chris Morris, Woodford Reserve Master Distiller for Brown-Forman, explained that while a modern distillery can install all one type of ricking, the historical distilleries of Brown-Forman have operated on a different premise.

  “The date of construction for the numerous warehouses at our distilleries ranges from 1890 through 2020.  Needless to say, this means we have many types of barrel rick material, from wood to metal. Within those two groups, we find different types of wood and metal in use over the years. That depends on the era an individual warehouse was constructed and who built it. We also have some palletized storage as well as floor dunnage. The Woodford Reserve Distillery, for example, has warehouses with wooden ricks and others with heavy iron rails. Woodford also has some palletized space and floor dunnage. 

  “While our ricks are made of various materials, they are all using the same design that was patented in 1879: the ‘open rick’ design. Now, this again will vary in length and height, based on the size of the warehouse. Some wide houses will have a rick that holds 31 barrels, while others may only hold 11 due to the narrow width of the house. Most of our warehouses have ricks that are ‘three high’ or have three tiers of ricks.  However, we do have one house that has ‘six high’ ricks. Still, the design doesn’t change.  When our cooperage makes a barrel for a distillery, like a Woodford Reserve specific barrel, it doesn’t know which warehouse it is going to be entered into, so that barrel has to fit in every warehouse’s ricks.”

  When it comes to proper storage, Morris said, some things never change. “The proper storage for a barrel in the rick is simple. Rick it with the bung in the 12 o’clock position to minimize leakage. If a barrel already has a leak, rick it with the leak point at 12 o’clock. Otherwise, it is the condition of the warehouse that is important, rather than how the barrel sits in the rick.  We want clean, dry conditions in the warehouse.”

  Morris also said that there is no need to rotate barrels if there is good inventory control, along with batching barrels together to make a consistent flavor profile. A barrel matures based upon warehouse temperatures and the length of time the barrel spends in the warehouse, not by how it sits.

  “There has been a tremendous amount of study conducted on the impact temperature has on the maturation process,” he said. “Brown-Forman has research papers that date back to the 1920’s – we operated during Prohibition under medicinal permit KY—3. Based on these many studies, we never allow our Kentucky warehouses to drop below 55 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter. This requires that each of our warehouses be constructed with thick masonry walls so they can be heated as necessary. They will get as hot as they will in the summer because they can’t be cooled. Jack Daniels has ‘iron clad’ warehouses, so they can’t be heated and will, therefore, get cold in the winter. So, Brown-Forman matures its whiskies across a variety of maturation styles.”

Reusing Resources

  Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, is home to The Barrel Broker, co-owned by John and Kathleen Gill, who started the business 11 years ago in California. The company sources and supplies used barrels and racks for breweries, wineries and distilleries. While its clients are primarily in the Midwest, The Barrel Broker also has business overseas.  The company’s customer base prefers barrels freshly emptied and slightly wet. A lot of that barrel stock comes from bourbon distilleries which, by law, can only use a barrel once for bourbon.

  Accordingly, The Barrel Broker has some insight to share on how to store barrels and what its customers prefer when selecting used racks. John Gill, who has a background in the wine tourism industry and heads quality control for the company, said that for his clients, choosing a racking system really comes down to need, preference and budget.

  “Racks are designed to safely store barrels two wide and up to five stacks high while being able to be moved with a pallet jack or forklift. The seven-inch racks allow ample space to access the bungs while stacked for pulling samples or topping off.  We suggest used, refurbished or new two-barrel racks in three-to-seven-inch sizes.  We sell them all for barrels, 15 to 60 gallons.” 

  Gill agrees with other experts, such as Morris, who say that barrels don’t need to be rotated. He told Beverage Master Magazine that he also believes that keeping the proper temperature in a warehouse is key to a successful product outcome from any barrel.

  “Ideal for breweries is high humidity, 60% to 70%, and cool temperatures to minimize evaporation loss. Ideal for distilleries is a continuous change of temperatures and humidity to achieve complex flavors and complexity in barrel-aged spirits.”

  Price and preference dictate what racking systems a brewery or distillery may choose. However, experts agree that controlling warehouse temperature, avoiding undue pressure on barrels, and keeping tabs on inventory control produce the best results.  Whether wood or metal, racking is a matter of knowing what will stack up as the best outcome for the product inside a barrel.

Mixology Mishaps:

How To Turn Negative Online Reviews into Successful Sales

By: Chris Mulvaney, President (CMDS)

Sticks and stones may break our bones, but words will never …hurt us? Wait, never mind.  In the craft beverage industry, words can do damage, especially online where your reputation is always one Google search away.

  Facebook, Yelp, and Google are the three most-trusted review sources for local searches.  Reviews on these sites matter.  The way that your business treats a negative review can tell your customers a lot about you.  So, if you do happen to receive one, you need to act fast.

And while you are no doubt used to handling the difficult customer in person, social review channels are open for all to see, and negative comments can reflect poorly on your craft brand and, ultimately, cost you sales — right?  Well, yes and no.

  Yes, if you don’t manage your negative comments properly, then it could be bad news for your revenue stream. However, there are ways to offset negative reviews. And, if you respond the right way, you can turn those negative comments around and avoid having a damaging social media mishap.

  In fact, you can leverage them to actually improve your conversion rates, “boost” your sales, and ultimately create success for your craft beverage brand.

Create a Game Plan

  Before you take any action on a review, you should always have a game plan in place. That way, your social media presence remains consistent across all review platforms.

  Look at it this way: think of each negative review as an opportunity to show your customers that you care.

  Here are some game plan directives to put into place:

1.  Don’t Ignore Them or Be Defensive:  Hearing someone criticize your business hurts. It can be tempting to close your browser every time you read a bad review, or, even worse, to respond with a cutting retort, but burying your head in the sand or exhibiting online “road rage” isn’t going to solve anything. Instead, come up with the right response. Address them by name. Humanizing your approach will demonstrate your brand ethics. Make sure that you remain genuine. Don’t answer with an auto-reply. Take the time to actually investigate each issue. Don’t debate the validity of their statements, argue, or respond in an aggressive or combative way, even if you don’t agree. Arguing with a dissatisfied client online makes their original complaint seem more valid, and worse, it never makes you look good.

       Instead, thank the reviewer for their feedback and offer a sincere apology for their experience. You don’t have to take responsibility, but do show empathy.

2.  Respond as Quickly as Possible: It is vital to respond to negative comments as quickly as you can.  Doing this will give you a better chance to salvage those bad reviews. Each minute matters on social media because everyone has real-time access to it.

       To help you manage your social media responses in a timely manner, it’s best to hire an agency. They can assist with implementing tools so you are alerted in real-time whenever you receive a comment on one of your channels. You can quickly resolve any issues and prevent significant customer loss.

3.  Really Make the Effort to Solve the Problem: Making something right will also show potential customers that you are completely committed to ensuring satisfaction.

       In addition, many reviewers will go back and post their experience if it turns into a positive one, and every positive review takes the sting out of a negative one. Highlight these experiences so customers see that you care about the outcome.

4. Keep it Real:  An imperfect, but pretty strong rating appears much more believable to customers than having a perfect record. Unblemished reviews can look “fake” and more untrustworthy than their blemished counterparts. In a nutshell, negative reviews provide some honest feedback on your craft beverage product or service and can mix in nicely with the positive commentary.

Leverage Other Business’s Negative Experiences

  As the saying goes, a person who learns from other people’s mistakes is a wise person. And leveraging other people’s negative experiences can offer many benefits.

  Learning from others by doing your research helps you avoid the same obstacles.

  For instance, here are some top online customer complaints about various craft beverage establishments swirling around social media right now:

●    Place not open as advertised/Website not updated/Hours not listed.

●    Want a bigger pour for the price.

●    Employees are rude/non-compliant with safety.

●    Tour was longer than it stated.

●    Not clear about rules (kids, food, etc).

●    Not enough offerings/limited selection.

●    No Flight Layout (for breweries).

  All of these comments boil down to the same two issues: Online presence and customer communication.

  You know what takes to manage your business and your inventory. And, with the popularity of craft beverage businesses, there is a steady stream of new customers. Some patrons, used to a different type of establishment, or ones who are simply impatient when it comes to being served at a busy place, offer a different level of frustration.

  To counteract this, make sure you take notice of negative reviews from similar businesses to limit having the same thing happen to you.

  Here are some counter-acting responses to the above examples:

●   Always keep your website and hours of operation updated. Do you require reservations or are you first come, first serve? Do your hours change with the seasons? Close for private parties? Planning these updates in advance and keeping your business information up to date ensures you do not get disgruntled customers who are more likely to chalk up their “bad” experience through a negative review.

●   Be CLEAR with your pricing, online and in person. Be transparent about promotions and their start/end dates. State whether sales tax is or is not included. Be open about the size of your pour. Being transparent can avoid any unwelcome surprises.

●   Train your employees in the art of customer service. While you know there will be times when it will get busy and your staff may get pulled in different directions, the customer should always be treated in kind.  Consider security cameras to give peace of mind to both the customer and the staff so that any situation can have an objective eye.

●   Be aware of the most up-to-date safety and cleanliness measures. Make sure your business adheres to them to keep everyone as safe as possible all round.

●   If you provide tours, state when your tours begin and finish. If they can be more lax, state that too. Make sure this is stated online and in person.

●   Let your customer be prepared before they come to your business on what your rules are by posting them and in your place of business. Do you have a food menu or do you use a trusted vendor? Are kids allowed? Is there an “Adults-Only” area? Tasting rules? Your menu and offerings should be clearly stated online and in person. Make sure to keep this updated. Are you a brewery with a flight menu? Let them know either way. Some things cannot be avoided (such as running out of a flavor or not being able to offer growlers) … try to keep up on this as much as possible. Mention it on social or display it on a board at your business.

  You will always have to take the good with the bad, but the more you know, the more you can prepare for.

  It’s True: Those Bad reviews Can Actually Improve Your Sales. Believe it or not, bad reviews have the power to improve your sales and conversion rates, too.

  As previously mentioned, if your business gets only positive reviews, consumers might question whether those reviews are legitimate.

  Since nobody is perfect, having a healthy mix of both positive and negative reviews will help customers view your business as more trustworthy. Most customers actually expect negative reviews on your site, and if they don’t see them, they think your reviews are fabricated.

  And, when there are negative reviews mixed in with the positive ones, that reduced skepticism will add to your brand’s authenticity.

  For that reason, it’s important not to delete your negative comments on your social channels because they can actually work in your favor by making the positive comments that much more credible.

The Last Gulp

To recap:

●   Create a uniformed GAMEPLAN.

●   Use other competitors’ negative review experiences to improve your brand strategy.

●   Leverage negative comments to drive beverage sales and conversion rates.

  That’s why it’s important to hire the right agency to manage your online presence with these initiatives and more. Doing so ensures that you uphold a valuable asset – your business’s reputation, without taking away from your valuable time.

  All in all, your social media strategy in how you respond to negative comments can flip the unsatisfactory customer experience on its head, turning them into positive sentiments and increased sales, resulting in the happy sound of clinking glasses.

  Chris Mulvaney is a business developer, entrepreneur, and an award-winning creative marketing strategist. His extensive professional background includes working with some of the world’s leading brands – and personally helping clients refine their corporate vision and generate the kind of eye-popping results that too many companies only dream about. Visit… cmdsonline.com

2021 Beverage Trends

By: Tracey L. Kelley

No producer wants to feel like their business is simply dictated by trends and not backed by individual vision and a solid plan. However, if 2020 taught us anything, it’s to be strategic, targeted and, most of all, flexible.

  To understand what consumers want in 2021 and beyond, Beverage Master Magazine gathered some trend data and talked with Holly McHugh, marketing associate for Imbibe, a beverage development company focused on the formulation, customization and commercialization of cutting-edge beverage products that provide a “bolt-on R&D function” for companies without R&D or that need to expand in this area.

So—What’s New?

  Taking stock of the past year and establishing aspects of revision is still a personal and professional journey. Still, maybe some of these indicators will resonate as either extensions of current practices or sparks of innovation.

People are Eager for To-go and Online Options

  “The pandemic changed the way we shop, socialize, entertain and more,” McHugh said. “This created a need for CPG (consumer packaged goods) brands to offer products that provide an escape from the mundane but can be enjoyed at home.”

  In December 2020, Forbes reported that “total eCommerce penetration experienced 10 years of growth March through May 2020.” It cited research from IWSR that stressed “online sales of alcohol in the U.S. alone are expected to grow by more than 80%” in 2021. The IWSR analysis indicated that “beverage alcohol eCommerce value grew by 42% in 2020,” and the forecast is that the U.S. will overtake China “as the world’s largest beverage alcohol e-Commerce market by the end of 2021.”

  Quite simply, customers are fond of the convenience and expanse of options online ordering provides. In major and secondary market areas, consumers use platforms like Drizly to browse various selections and receive their purchases within 60 minutes. Many local producers also have access to DoorDash and other delivery services, regulations permitting. “Ghost bars” — extensions of virtual or cloud bars or restaurants often accessed only through third-party delivery services — also saw an increase in consumer interest as producers found new ways to lower overhead but expand product offerings and brand awareness.

  Do-it-yourself kits, mixology classes, premium bar selections, unusual or over-the-top experimental selections and other experienced-based offerings continue to drive consumer interest in 2021. They also still desire personal connections with makers.

Non-standard Products Continue to Rise

  Hard seltzer, cider, tea, kombucha and beer tap into consumers’ desire to balance healthy libations with beverage-driven exploration.

  For example, pandemic purchases of hard seltzer, in particular, rose significantly in 2020, moving beyond previous limitations of seasonality, and there’s no stopping point yet. Nielsen reported that “Hard seltzer-correlated ready-to-drink cocktails drove $120 million in U.S. off-premise sales in the 52-week period ending June 2020, while growing at a 127% rate compared with the previous year.” That growth, Nielsen states, “opened the doors to an even broader array of new and bolder flavor options accompanying the base liquid, and it’s allowing manufacturers to expand the limits of what ‘hard seltzer’ means.”

  Zero-proof spirits, especially those enhanced with adaptogens – herbal substances that promote wellness – botanicals and CBD also have growth potential.

  As regulations shift, CBD- and even THC-infused products are positioned for a meteoric rise, according to a 2020 report by Grant View Research. “The global cannabis beverages market size is expected to reach USD 2.8 Billion by 2025 at a CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) of 17.8 percent.” While some consumers might opt for THC’s “therapeutic effects along with the euphoria it provides,” Grant View Research indicated, people consider CBD products differently.

  “Lack of psychoactive effect in the CBD drinks is widening its scope for usage of the drinks in medical purposes. Many consumers are considering CBD drinks as a wellness and anti-inflammatory products, such as kombucha, a probiotic drink. This drink can potentially be used for treating chronic pain, anxiety, substance use disorders and central nervous system diseases. These factors are expected to boost the adoption of the product, resulting in the growth of the segment,” the report outlined.

Health is Front and Center

  “Since the onset of the pandemic, improving physical and mental health has become a top priority for consumers,” McHugh said. Imbibe’s trendspotting indicated a sharp uptick in non-alcoholic wellness beverages and other forms of “permissible indulgence.” While this doesn’t seem to align with alcohol initially, it presents opportunities to consider communications and branding that acknowledge aspects of a healthy lifestyle.

  Spirit-forward classics, which celebrated resurgence in 2020, aren’t slowing down in the new year and might provide another way to acknowledge the balance of responsible consumption that focuses on taste and experience.

  Combating stress with beverages, otherwise known as mood boosters, that allow for clarity, relaxation and sleep is another trend for 2021, similarly to non-traditional offerings.

There’s a Greater Awareness of Ethical Practices and Cultural Appropriation

  In addition to a greater interest in immunity and mood-boosting beverages, McHugh said there’s an increased demand for global products and flavors — with a caveat.

  While culinary tourism is at a high, panelists at Bar Convent Brooklyn last fall stressed that consumers would continue to share dollars and social media influence with businesses that are more progressive when addressing workplace inequalities, sexism, racism and other societal concerns. They want inclusion and diversity, but from the originators. For example, tiki bars are replaced with nautical or tropical themes; an introduction to popular new tequila includes cultural history from someone in the Latinx community; and a closer examination of whether the producers’ table includes people of color and women, especially when it involves other rising spirit trends such as sake, soju, South American spirits and Japanese whiskey.

Value and Safety Still Prevail

  While this really isn’t a surprise, it’s simply a reminder that we can’t move into what was once normal just yet.

  “Economic uncertainty created demand for value, which we anticipate will be evident through increased sales in multi-use and multi-pack products and private label innovation,” McHugh said. “Safety is something we always think about in the industry in the sense that we don’t want to sell a product that could be dangerous to the consumer, but concern about safety has been heightened by the pandemic. Consumers are purchasing groceries online now more than ever, paying closer attention to product packaging and checking what safety precautions food service establishments are taking before eating out or ordering in.”

Tank Supplies for Modern Distilleries

By: Alyssa L. Ochs

In a distillery setting, tanks are used for various purposes, including blending, fermenting, storing, distilling and filtering. But in addition to the actual tanks, several tank-related products and accessories help distillers do their jobs more effectively and efficiently.

  When choosing tank wraps, insulation, meters and stands, it is essential to consider these products’ functionality, cost, maintenance and ease of cleaning and sanitation. Meanwhile, there are unique tank-related considerations for distilleries that other types of beverage producers may not need to address. Fortunately, many specialized suppliers serve the distillery market to meet these needs and solve common issues that arise while making craft spirits. 

Essential Distillery Tank Supplies

  Craft spirit distilleries use tank wraps to provide fluid temperature control and help fluids circulate properly inside the tanks. Wraps, such as glycol-styles on the sides and bottoms of tanks, also reduce condensation and moisture loss.

  Similarly, tank insulation ensures that temperatures stay as hot or as cold as necessary. Insulation on tanks prevents freezing pipes, corrosion and mold while also controlling humidity levels and saving energy. For example, Syneffex insulation is a popular option among distilleries to reduce energy usage and emissions for more environmentally sustainable operations. Distilleries can find storage and fermentation tanks that have optional heating and cooling jackets to maintain optimal temperatures.

  Distillers use tank meters to gauge pressure levels in their tanks and monitor the liquids’ temperature inside them. Meters also help distillers monitor the flow to minimize product loss over time. Pressure-relieving and venting devices are optional features on some distillery tanks. Also, tank stands are important in the distillery to hold and secure tanks in a safe way. Frames built for this purpose come in various sizes to fit different levels of production.

  Distilleries also use CIP spray balls, hydrators, valves and racking arms. Cooling coils, air compressors, aging barrels, clamps and condensers are other accessories that craft distilleries may need to replace or upgrade over time.

Choosing the Right Tank Supplies

  Distillers should choose tank wraps that are flexible and easy to put on and adjust as necessary. Tank insulation should have a good track record for energy efficiency so the distillery can save money in the long run. It’s in a distillery’s best interest to work with a supplier that can build storage tanks with as much insulation needed for the operation.

  One good option for insulating beverage tanks is the Flextank FlexChill system in a temperature-controlled room. FlexChill is an exterior wrap chilling system with glycol chillers. Useful for cylindrical tanks in sizes from 50- to 300-gallons, this system is designed for maximum insulation performance. With distribution outlets in Washington, Australia, South Africa, Chile and France, Flextank products are used to produce wine, mead, cider and specialty spirits. For heating and cooling, distilleries can also find dimple jackets, open jackets, half-pipe coils and internal pipe coils from Stainless Fabrication, Inc., in Springfield, Missouri.

  Distillers should look for meters with hygienic process fittings to maintain clean and sanitized tanks that don’t compromise the quality of the product. The measurement range and temperature compensation capabilities are features to look for when choosing a new meter. Some companies that supply these meters will offer information security standards and even loaner units while servicing an existing product.

  Bellevue, Washington-based ATAGO U.S.A., Inc. manufactures refractometers, viscometers, polarimeters, pH meters, saccharimeters, and others. The company’s In-Line Refractometer PRM series is commonly used for craft beverage tank monitoring and equipped with an alarm that signals when valves exceed high and low limit values.

  For tank stands, distillers should consider portable products in case there’s a need to move them due to space confines or a potential future expansion. YoLong Distillery Equipment offers support frames that provide standard column support and can be customized to provide additional functions.

  It is in a distillery’s best interest to choose reliable suppliers that can provide ongoing support and replacement parts, no matter the equipment.

Maintenance & Cleaning Considerations

  Keeping equipment clean is critical in preserving the product’s integrity, keeping customers safe and staying in business. The basics needed for tank cleaning include a pump, clean water, heat, citric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide solution, ethyl alcohol and safety gear. Check tank supplies for any oil, grime, dirt or dust collected during the distilling process or in storage. It is common for residue to accumulate around a tank meter’s surface and make it difficult to read, for example. While cleaning distillery tanks, rubber gloves and safety glasses should be on-hand for protection, and workers should dress in long sleeves, pants, and boots.

Why Distillery Tank Supplies are Unique

  Beyond craft distilleries, several industries use tanks, such as manufacturers of chemicals, oil and plastics. However, distillers have unique considerations when choosing tank supplies.

  Distillery tank supplies must be food-grade equipment since they are involved in making consumable products. Tanks and supplies must also withstand hot and cold temperatures and perhaps serve multiple purposes in the distillery. Since tanks are large and many distilleries operate in small spaces, multi-functional tanks are a significant asset to maximize square footage. Therefore, it may be necessary to update tank supplies when using an existing tank for a new purpose.

Tank Supply Companies

  In addition to the companies already mentioned throughout this article, other reputable suppliers specialize in the craft spirits market and offer high-quality supplies and accessories for tanks.

•   Affordable Distillery Equipment, LLC has a wide range of accessories for distillery purposes, including hydrometers, thermometers, cooling coils, air compressors and ingredient kits. Whether your distillery equipment budget is $5,000 or $500,000, their website, Distillery-Equipment.com, offers used equipment for sale in addition to its brand-new water and spirit storage tanks, fittings, tubing, thermometers and pumps.

http://shop.distillery-equipment.com

•   Global Stainless Systems, based in Portland, Oregon company supplies distilleries with various types of equipment in addition to tanks, including glycol chillers, valves, fittings and hoses.

http://www.globalstainlesssystems.com

•   Mile Hi Distilling based in Wheatridge, Colorado,  offers distilling supplies specific for fermentation, including several meter options.

https://milehidistilling.com

  Of course, these are just a few of the many U.S. companies serving distilleries’ needs, but it provides a starting point for sourcing tank accessories. Distillers should choose a supplier that regularly works with distillery tanks rather than general tanks for other industries and provides a warranty on the products they sell. While these distillery supplies may seem fairly straightforward on the surface, having ongoing support is a huge help if something goes wrong or during any future expansions.

Up Your Consistency and Repeatability Game With Quality Testers and Meters

By: Gerald Dlubala

Testers, meters, monitors and probes make it possible for craft alcohol producers to raise their standards and improve their craft. The overall move from older, unreliable, visual-based testing to greater process control with more accurate and precise analysis means repeatable sample measurements and more product consistency for reporting purposes.

Quality Control and Analysis at Your Fingertips

  “Measurement and meter use within the distillery are critical for quality analysis and quality control,” said David Zavich, Applications and Technical Support Manager for Mettler Toledo. Mettler Toledo is a leading provider of precision instruments and research and development-related services, quality control and production across numerous industries.

  “At the very least, the distiller should possess a quality pH meter and density meter for help in making informed decisions throughout the production process, and know if and when to intervene and make any needed adjustments. The best way for a distiller to know when the mash is within the acceptable pH range – 5.2-5.8, 5.4 being optimal – for the enzymatic activity to convert starches to sugars is with a quality pH meter. It also helps monitor the critical fermentation activity of a distiller’s beer, when pH should decrease to 4.0-4.5 as yeast metabolize ammonium ions and excrete organic acids. A pH remaining above 5.0 indicates a lack of activity, and pH below 4.0 may indicate the presence of undesirable bacterial contamination.

  “Benchtop density meters are invaluable for determining the proof and quantity of distilled spirits for TTB reporting purposes,” said Zavich. “Handheld versions can determine mash extract efficiency before fermentation, measure distiller’s beer to ensure fermentation is complete, calculate alcohol by volume, and measure proof during the distilling process that aids in making cuts.

  “To measure density, the distiller has three available options,” said Luke Soposki, marketing specialist for Mettler Toledo’s Analytical Chemistry division. “They can use a hydrometer, which is inexpensive and offers several industry measurement scales, but they are fragile, dependent on the user for results and have longer measurement cycles. Pycnometers are also inexpensive and can achieve a level of accuracy, but they require a higher level of training and have limited measurement scales available. The best choice is a digital density meter. They are more expensive but easier to use, more consistent and reliable, and have a shorter measurement cycle. They cover a wide density range, have automatic temperature compensation, and are available in a variety of models to meet the specific needs of the distiller.”

  “Density meters are quite durable,” said Zavich. “Benchtop units are quite self-sufficient with a suggested yearly preventative maintenance. They have an expected lifespan of around 10 years, but we’ve seen operational units well beyond that mark. Handheld units have no specified terms of use but are equally self-sufficient and expected to last many years under normal use.”

  “The main thing is to ask questions before purchasing,” said Soposki. “Mettler Toledo offers a full suite of testing solutions that include density meters, refractometers, titrators, spectrophotometers and pH meters. We can also talk about automation and multi-parameter options when needed. Distillers’ needs are always evolving, and we know that they are still looking for an easier way to release product after testing, specifically with TTB approved handheld density meters. Ask specific questions about the instruments related to your process applications. Ask for a demo, either onsite, virtually, or even in a try-and-buy program when available. Look for manufacturers that can support you across your business needs and offer service and support beyond just the equipment purchase.”

All in for Peace of Mind

  Or, you could go all in and buy the Rudolph Research Densitometer, the same machine that the TTB uses to send off samples for auditing. That’s what Greg Pope, Master Distiller of Missouri Ridge Distillery, did when he opened his distillery in Branson, Missouri.

  “It was pricey for sure,” said Pope. “At the time, it was a huge investment, around $6,500, plus another couple of thousand in training costs. It easily outpaced the cost of other densitometers, but it’s the one piece of equipment I thought was worth it based on time value savings, and in our case specifically, the frequency of the breakage factor of common hydrometers. I use it every day for my spirits as well as my beers, so for me, it’s a quality investment.”

  Accuracy and repeatability are always priorities in the distillery, and Pope told Beverage Master Magazine that he’s tried all the gadgets, getting hands-on experience at American Distilling Institute conferences and conventions. With the Rudolph Research Densitometer, he proofs a barrel in 25 to 30 minutes versus the 24 to 36 hours needed using traditional proofing methods.

  “When I got audited, and the agents saw that we have the same equipment that the TTB uses, we were already in favorable standing for trying to do the right thing,” said Pope. “This one piece of equipment holds all of our historical data that is time-stamped, properly labeled as tester batches, bottling runs, etc. and is transferable to a thumb drive for easy auditing. It’s designed for upgrading rather than obsolescence, saving money in the long run. We added the refractometer package when it came available for true and corrective proofs on our line of cordials.”

  Pope said that the training was an intensely monitored, two-day affair, but by the end of those two days, he was comfortable using the equipment for all of his applications and performing all necessary tests independently.

  “The only hiccups I’ve had with this equipment has honestly been because of human error,” said Pope. “Our machine is set to give us a recalibration reminder every Monday at midnight, and we can’t do any further testing until that recalibration is completed. The process is easy, and then we’re good to go for another week. This densitometer also has international settings, and because we export our bourbon to the U.K., we can provide their required test results.”

  Pope said that he also helps other distillers by testing and auditing their samples, providing another way to grow and support the distilling community.

Quality H2O: Good Water Equals Good Beer

  “That’s what brewers will tell you, and it’s certainly a good rule to follow,” said Mike McBride, marketing, IT and social media manager for Industrial Test Systems, a leading American manufacturer of instruments and chemistries designed to test water quality parameters. “It’s just a fact because beer is over 90% water, so it follows that good water makes for good beer.”

  Industrial Test Systems offers their popular eXact iDip Smart Photometer and their eXact pH meter to help brewers stay on top of their water parameters.

  “Visual testing only gives the end user a baseline guide or range versus digital testing that is much more precise and provides exact, repeatable results,” said McBride. “Our meters bring those types of laboratory quality results to you, and that’s important because of the many different tests performed on the water within a craft brewery. One example is testing for water hardness because different beers require different levels. Dark beers require harder water, while lighter beers use softer water. You have to have an accurate, quality test to determine what type of water you’re using.”

Brix and pH Meters: A Brewer’s Best Friend

  “Measuring pH and Brix levels in brewing is essential,” said Jason Brown of Milwaukee Instruments. “Both units are a must because those measurements ultimately determine the type of beer you will brew, how the flavor will turn out, and what percentage of alcohol the brew possesses. To measure alcohol content with a meter like our MA871 digital Brix refractometer, you take an initial Brix reading of the unfermented wort and then a follow-up reading once fermentation is complete. Those values are plugged into a conversion chart to determine the percentage of alcohol in your final product. Taking pH readings on a meter like our MW102 within the brewing process takes place from the beginning of the brewing process to the end, using it for multiple applications and processes.”

  Brown told Beverage Master Magazine that brewmasters typically already have basic knowledge of pH testers and refractometers. Still, even if they are new to the game, Milwaukee Instruments provides user-friendly equipment, with complete YouTube tutorials instructing the user on the operation, maintenance, storage and calibration of the meters. Most units come with a two-year warranty on the base unit and six months on the electrodes. Their bench meters offer data logging that is an advantage over comparable handheld units.

  “It’s recommended that both types of meters be calibrated before each use to maintain accuracy across all samples tested,” said Brown. “Our units can be calibrated by the end-user with no issues.”

Steam & Water Flow Measurement: Going with the Flow

  “Given the need for accuracy, consistency and repeatability, brewers should always choose the highest quality meter they can afford,” said Marc Bennett, regional sales manager for McCrometer, Inc., worldwide providers of precision flow meters for liquid, steam and gas applications. “Flow metering is all about optimizing production to give the brewer consistent and reliable results through understanding the precise temperatures, pressures and flow being used.

  “The best way to measure steam is through equipment like our V-Cone Meter. It helps a brewer understand the precise temperature, flow and measurement of their team processes, allowing them to optimize their consistency,” said Bennett. “We know craft brewers are frequently tight on space, so our V-Cone Meters are designed for tight fit and retrofit applications while handling most operating environments. Some of the largest, most well-known breweries use V-Cone meters for steam measurement, but they are very applicable for smaller brewers as well.”

  McCrometer also offers a line of electromagnetic flowmeters (MAG) for accurate water flow measurement. Their pumps rely on velocity and pipe diameter information to determine flow over wide ranges with high precision accuracy. Their SPI MAG measures everything from in-flow water through wastewater, including industrial flow processes involving potable water, slurries, sludge, cooling water and pulp stock.

  “Whatever the choice, brewers should always choose U.S. manufactured meters,” said Bennett. “U.S. manufactured meters are often more readily available and more quickly shipped than the non-U.S. manufactured counterparts. If you choose a high-quality meter with a long lifespan and U.S.-based support, you’re getting a great return on your investment. The last thing you need or want is to have your brewing process impacted or even halted because of support issues.”

  Bennett told Beverage Master Magazine that McCrometer meters have great attributes, including the aforementioned long lifespan and support. Perhaps one of the best advantages of both their MAG flow meters and the V-Cone DP meters is the advantage of having no maintenance or repair schedules.

  “That’s a big load off of a brewer’s calendar and his mind,” said Bennett. “Our new ProComm converter on the MAG meters is available with built-in verification that uses stored data to check a meter’s operation against its baseline. That’s true peace of mind. Our V-Cone Meters have been around and studied in applications that are a lot more rugged than what the typical brewery would put them through and have shown no shift whatsoever in their calibration coefficient.”

How Your Intellectual Property Can Make or Break a Merger

By: Ashley Earle, Attorney, Dinsmore & Shohl

Like a good recipe, a good brand name for a beer, wine, or other beverage can drive sales. That recipe, distilling process, bottle design, or logo is all a form of intellectual property that helps define who you are in the industry. It can also be a defining and important part of any transaction.

  In today’s COVID world, breweries, wineries and distilleries of all types are doing what they have to in order to survive and one day thrive. Some are turning to mergers and acquisitions as potential strategies for survival and success. It’s important to know how your intellectual property (IP) can make a difference, good and bad, to a potential deal. Below are the five things you need to know about IP in a merger or acquisition. 

What Is IP?

  Before we get there, it’s important to quickly define the different types of IP that exist:

•    Trademarks: A trademark is the most common form of IP protection in the alcoholic beverage industry. It protects anything that functions as a source identifier, (product names, company names, logos like the NBC peacock, bottle or can designs like the Coca-Cola bottle, or even sounds like the ESPN tones). Trademarks can be registered and unregistered, though unregistered marks are limited in geographic scope.

•    Patents: This protects a unique invention (a brewing process, a novel distillation column), a unique design (bottle designs), or a unique plant (strains of yeast or grapes). Patents must be registered and issued to be enforceable, though pending applications will be relevant in an M&A deal.

•    Copyrights: Copyright protection arises automatically as soon as an original work of authorship is “fixed” into something tangible. Basically, once you draw the artwork for your bottle or can, write the code for your website, or draft up a piece of marketing material, it is protected by copyright. Registration affords several key benefits but is not required to claim ownership in a work.

•    Trade secrets: A trade secret is something that gives you value because it is secret. Examples include customer or vendor lists and recipes.

  Additionally, when you go through a merger or acquisition, you will often be asked to list out all of your domain names, social media, and in some cases, any software that is material to your business. It is important to make sure you keep a list of these assets in case an opportunity arises.

  Now that we’ve covered the basics, let’s dive into the top five things you need to know in a merger and acquisition when it comes to your IP.

What IP Do I (and They) Have?

  Start by taking an inventory of everything you have that is protectable – beer names, wine names, logos, artwork, packaging, unique brewing processes or recipes, social media accounts, and domain names – to name a few. This should include anything you registered, anything you are trying to register (like pending applications), and anything unregistered but material to your business. Disclosure schedules are used to list all of the IP and what is to be transferred in the transaction (if not everything). Be clear to fully disclose what you have without overstating.

  The same should be true of the other side. You should ask them to disclose all of their IP assets that will be a part of the deal, all the way down to their social media accounts and domain names.

  As you and the other side are pulling this together, you also want to collect all of your documentation to evidence the IP. This could include trademark applications and registrations, copyright registrations, patent applications, patents, email accounts, and social media accounts. You will also want to pull any licenses you have to use IP, independent contractor agreements regarding creation of IP, liens on IP (if applicable), and any documentation relating to disputes or claims of infringement involving your IP (if applicable). Make sure you have clear documentation of the chain of title (meaning who owned it at each point) from origination to present day.

Do Both Sides Actually Own Their IP?

  The next question you need to ask yourself in any deal is: Do we actually own that IP? The answer may not be as simple as you think. You need to be sure that all assets are owned by the company and not an employee, owner, or even a third party. A lot of companies don’t realize that if they hire an independent contractor to make something, whether a website, logo, or marketing materials, unless they have the contractor expressly assign the finished product to their organization, the contractor owns it. Employee-created works should automatically transfer to the employer, but it is still good practice to include an assignment in your employment agreements. 

  Ownership issues can derail or even terminate what would otherwise be a great deal. Make sure that the ownership of IP on both sides is clearly documented and validated as you move forward.

What Are We Agreeing to In the Deal Terms?

  Within the deal documentation, there will be a number of representations and warranties and indemnity provisions that relate solely to IP and the disclosures and transfers being made in the deal. This is why it’s so important to make sure you have your ducks in a row with your IP as you move forward.

  These reps and warranties will range from confirming ownership of the IP to promising your IP does not infringe the rights of others. You can also see reps and warranties that ask you to declare that your employees have not created any IP that is not owned by the company. Your legal counsel can help to finesse the reps and warranties to match your circumstances and protect you as best they can, but it’s important you ensure everything stated is accurate. A broken rep and warranty in a transaction can be expensive and arise after the deal is done.

  You may also be asked to indemnify the other side for any claims of infringement of the IP, even if you are selling your business to them and walking away. Typically, indemnity provisions should only last for a particular time period following the sale and have a few caveats of what does and does not trigger indemnity. It’s important to make sure you understand them and how they may impact you in the future.

  It’s also important that you understand what will happen to your IP or the other side’s IP after the deal is done. Who will end up as the owner? Who has control? Will any IP be left behind with either party? Are there any pitfalls with the IP that need to be addressed (like prior enforcement matters that resulted in Coexistence Agreements or liens)? Given the importance of IP to any business, it’s doubly important to understand what happens to the IP in the deal as you look to the future.

Were Things Done Right with the IP by Both Sides?

  While you want to believe all assurances a party makes in fostering the deal, both sides must do their due diligence. Did an employee copy and paste images from Google that are infringing someone’s copyright? Did you use unauthorized background music in a promotional video or advertisement? Did you see a great idea at a trade show and implement something similar, not realizing it was patented or trademarked? As the brewery, distillery, or winery grows and expands, so do the footprint and the risk for claims against you.

  Similarly, data privacy can be another pitfall. If any customer information is kept, such as names, birthdays, addresses, or credit card information, (or more abstract information such as IP address or use of cookies, beacons, and pixels), you have to be sure that this information is kept safe and confidential. Ensure there are no data breaches and never have been any breaches.

Likewise, if you are keeping any data, a clear privacy policy must be in place. Do not be tempted to copy and paste a privacy policy found online. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) often comes down hard on businesses for having a policy that does not match what they are actually doing. Copying and pasting can lead to a policy that misleads consumers as to how you handle their data – and that’s a big problem.

A privacy policy can be fairly simple and straight forward: Explain what information you collect, where you keep it, how long you keep it, and how it is stored, and provide an option for customers to opt out (such as an email address to contact). The more information (and the clearer the information) the better – and when in doubt, ask for affirmative consent.

  With these five things in mind, you can approach a deal with confidence and find the perfect fit to expand and secure your brewery, distillery, or winery. When in doubt, consult your attorney – we’re here to help!

  Ashley Earle is an attorney at Dinsmore & Shohl who focuses on branding protection through trademark and copyright law. Dinsmore represents breweries, distilleries, wineries, cider companies and other alcoholic beverage producers in business, regulatory, intellectual property and litigation matters. Dinsmore attorney represent these entities in every stage of their business, from formation to operation to final sale or closure.  Ashley can be contacted at…513-977-8522 or ashley.earle@dinsmore.com

Brewing Social Media Success:

How to Use the ‘Gram to Maximize Your Craft Beverage Brand  

By: Chris Mulvaney, President (CMDS)

What three things do Tito’s, Blue Chair Bay Rum and Trillium Brewing Company have in common?  All three have mastered the ‘gram game and have boosted their brand success by putting out a consistent cross-formula of brand content, brand awareness and maximizing audience engagement across the ever-growing social media platform.

  Whether you are a craft brewer, startup spirit producer or global drinks company, your social media presence should be at the top of your priority list. But how exactly can crafters use Instagram to grow their business?

  Instagram is a visually appealing social media platform. In recent years, it has started to dominate Facebook in that it is not as overcrowded and expensive. The beauty of Instagram is that brands can still establish an organic relationship with their followers and can develop brand personas, becoming known for a certain tone, content and style. They can build their brand immensely just by being an active user. Also, the influencer market has never been so powerful for brand awareness.

Instagram Strategy

  Once you get a grasp of the platform, then you must define your social media strategy to gain the right followers and maximize engagement.

   This should include:

•   Increasing brand awareness.

•   Driving website traffic.

•   Increasing website engagement to generate leads and drive sales.

•   Increasing customer retention, engagement, and followers.

  How can a brand stand out in an increasingly competitive market?

•   Quality products, first and foremost.

•   Great marketing.

  After that, tell your brand story through photos, partnerships, video and human interaction. Think about what separates your product from others in the market. This isn’t something that’s achieved by one post, but over time, and means connecting your product to something much wider than the drink itself.

  For example, Mexican brand, Corona, understands the appeal of their beverage isn’t just the beer itself. A Corona and lime brings to mind vacations, beaches, relaxation and sun.

  They’ve fully embraced this as their brand, tying the image of plunging a fresh lime into a cold Corona to diving headfirst into the waters of a clear blue ocean.

Organic Media vs. Paid Media

  In the past, the goal of most marketers on Instagram tended towards growing a big following, then continuously publishing content that’s relevant to their brand and audience. One important point to realize, however, is that just because you have 1000 followers doesn’t mean every time you post all 1000 of them will see that post.

  In fact, the reality is a much smaller percentage of them will ever see your post and that’s where the term “organic reach” comes in.

Organic

  One of the most important things to understand about social media marketing is that the way companies can succeed on social media will be entirely dependent on whether they can create an organic experience for users.

  Organic reach determines how many of your followers will see your post without you paying.

This concept of organic reach is prevalent on Instagram since the algorithms used to determine who will see your content at any given time are based primarily on engagement.

  Tips to Get More Organic Reach:

•    Feed your audience with more value.

•    Upload at least two posts a day.

•    Make use of all the features (posts, stories, comments, hashtags).

•    Use attention-grabbing headlines.

•    Use paid sites like Sprout Social to understand the industry atmosphere and create an ongoing dialogue with your audience.

Paid Distribution

  Due to changes in organic reach over the years, companies have been forced to rethink their social media strategies, and in many cases begin exploring other avenues to reach their users on social media, specifically through paid distribution.

  Utilizing paid channels has a number of benefits because it can target users based on demographic information, behavior and interests. Because of this, marketers are able to drill down to specific audiences.

Seven Steps to Success

  Gaining followers and engagement isn’t about simply posting once a week and hoping for the best. In fact, a successful strategy on Instagram should include concrete goals, an ongoing content calendar, a scientific approach to who you’re trying to reach and how many people you expect to interact with.

  The following are seven important steps to grow your brand on Instagram.

1.  Be consistent:   It’s important to define a core strategy for your brand. It should be consistent across all channels and the narrative should be easy to follow. You’ll need to balance product content, campaign content and brand content to be most effective.

       How to maximize consistency on the Instagram platform:

•   Post stories often.

•   Like and comment on posts.

•   Run a contest.

•   Post engaging captions.

•   Offer free advice or information.

•   Post during active hours.

•   Use Instagram ads (paid distribution).

•   Have a strong visual brand strategy.

2.  Use clever alcohol hashtags:  Using clever alcohol-related hashtags can help get your brand trending online or inspire a sense of community with your customers.

        Studies have shown the optimal number of hashtags to use in Instagram consistently is seven. However, even more important is to define your hashtags, include them on packaging and don’t change them too often to make sure fans can refer to you easily.

3.  Use Influencers:   The influencer market has never been so powerful. There are hiring sites for influencers that will allow you to enhance your brand and vision through them. It’s a great way to promote engagement because it boosts brand awareness fast and increases your potential to go viral.

4.  Keep the “social” in social media:  A great way to inspire your fans is to use social media to inspire real world engagement. Your brand will get the most out of social media by catering to the interactive experience. It’s important to be part of the conversation around social events which will resonate with your market – both in terms of pre-planned campaigns and via reactive content.

       Just having a social media account is not enough. Successful brewing and spirit brands actively encourage their fans to engage with their accounts. Many have received some serious engagement by re-posting user generated photos.

       Whether you’re sponsoring a national event, or you can be reactive in a more local way, providing up-to-date content and being part of the conversation will help to keep your brand relevant.

5.  Offer a Backstage Pass:  Take your followers behind the scenes. Let your audience peek behind the curtain and see how their favorite drinks are made. Post photos of the start-up days, of the staff living life and having real experiences.

6.  Connect to a Cause:  Just as social media users don’t only care about likes and clicks, drinkers don’t care solely about their alcohol. More and more, consumers care about the ethics behind the products they’re buying. Remember, they are buying a brand.

       For example, New Belgium Brewing Company put meaning behind their message with their #FindingCommonGround campaign, which not only connects their outdoorsy aesthetic brand to a public land cause, but raised over $250,000 for charity.

        It’s worth the investment, on multiple levels, to put some of your efforts into giving back.

7.  Partner with other brands:   A drink is better with friends. Likewise, a brand is better in a partnership.

       Consider doubling up your power for promotions with a complimentary brand. Partnerships are especially good on Instagram for giveaways, allowing you to expand your offer and reach two different audiences.

       Make sure to find a brand aligned with your goals, and of similar size to get maximum value from a partnership.

Don’t Make These Common Instagram Mistakes

  Common mistakes brands can make on Instagram can hurt them exponentially. Here are some important ones to avoid:

•    Sharing more reposts than original content.

•    Taking too long to respond to comments.

•    Favoring quantity over quality.

•    Misusing hashtags.

•    Buying likes and fake followers.

•    Not paying attention to analytics.

Recap

Craft beverage companies have a product that is in demand, but they are working in an increasingly competitive market. Digital marketing allows them to stay ahead of the game through creative branding and audience engagement.

As a recap, here are some main social media tips as discussed above:

•    Get to know how the Instagram platform works.

•    Define your social media strategy.

•    Tell your brand story.

•    Utilize organic search and paid distribution.

•    Be consistent.

•    Use hashtags.

•    Use influencers.

•    Inspire real world engagement.

•    Take your followers behind the scenes.

•    Connect to a cause.

•    Partner with other brands.

•    Keep it going; don’t stop!

The Last Gulp

  If craft beverage companies hope to engage consumers and boost their sales in this competitive market, they have to adopt a social media strategy that ensures success. While there is no cookie-cutter formula to success on Instagram, there is a pattern that works across the platform if utilized properly.

  The realness is in the engagement and knowing how to maximize your followers and their engagement. So keep thinking: just how can you brew up a social media campaign as unique as your beverage?

Chris Mulvaney is a business developer, entrepreneur, and an award-winning creative marketing strategist. His extensive professional background includes working with some of the world’s leading brands – and personally helping clients refine their corporate vision and generate the kind of eye-popping results that too many companies only dream about. Visit… cmdsonline.com

Enhanced Yeast Strains Follow Distilleries’ Desires for New & Unique Profiles

By: Gerald Dlubala

The world of yeast strains is large, diverse and ever-changing. Used in commonly recognized applications, including baking, brewing, wine production, plant care, cosmetics and dedicated spirits production, the strains can contain similar attributes. The differences come in how they react under varying conditions and temperatures, and those are both noticeable and noteworthy.

Experimentation and Exploration Contribute to New and Enhanced Choices

  “These days, craft distillers are experimenting with virtually everything to provide differentiation in their spirit, and that means with yeast strains, too,” said Denise Jones, Technical Sales Support Manager with a focus in fermentation for distilling for Fermentis, experts in the fermented beverages industry.

  “If it converts starch into sugar, any yeast can theoretically be used to make a wash that can become distillable alcohol. Variations in yeast strains produce varied metabolic byproducts that translate into different congeners in the fermentation and final spirit post-maturation. Some distillers are trying different individual or combinations of yeasts, including Belgian ale yeasts, traditional American ale yeasts, or even Champagne yeasts to ferment their mashes. Individual fermentations can be distilled as a blend or be distilled individually and blended later. When you consider how these then respond to different process conditions, temperature conditions, the initial sugar concentration, inoculation rates, nutrition values and more, either individually or in combinations, you can significantly affect the behavior of some yeasts and, consequently, their flavor profile.”

  Jones said that distillers play a crucial role in yeast strain development by selecting and successfully using strains adapted for the products they want to manufacture. Yeast strains prove to be successful and reliable by distillers regularly practicing their craft while continuing on their quest to manufacture a product that offers unique characteristics, including sensory values, fermentation speeds, efficiency in sugar conversion and more.

  “Distilling yeasts do possess similarities to those commonly used for wine, beer and cider. But many of the distilling strains have properties that keep the fermentation progressing in the more stressful and challenging sugar substrates present in distillers mashes and musts. Distiller’s yeasts are more efficient in converting sugar into alcohol, meaning the final fermentation is faster and drier with fewer residual unfermented dextrins left over. These strains work at a higher temperature and ferment more quickly, typically within 72 hours versus a beer fermentation that can last up to 14 days,” said Jones. “Additionally, yeasts that work quickly are advantageous to distilleries that look towards higher efficiency to maximize production and capacity within the shortest timeframe. Some strains address the need for greater heat tolerance, furfural tolerance, or the need to adhere to enzyme use regulations. Genetic compositions allow these strains to ferment larger sugar molecules and increase congener development that translates into more desirable aromas and flavors in the final product.”

  “For example,” she said, “to produce whiskey in Scotland, the use of enzymes is not allowed, so strains that can ferment complex sugars are required. Whiskey also requires an aging process in barrels and some specific congeners produced by yeasts. Rum uses different types of cane sugar substrates, ranging from exhausted molasses with a high non-fermentable solid content to juice directly extracted from the cane. They are different worlds in terms of substrates, requiring strains that resist specific conditions. In short, we cannot pretend that a strain selected for wine and that has evolved in that environment can efficiently ferment a rum or whiskey. Likewise, a strain used to ferment sugar cane juice cannot properly ferment exhausted molasses. But cross-functionality is often possible and encouraged as an important tool for innovation.”

  “Our distiller’s strains have been selected for their tendency to be robust in high-stress situations that can alter and restrain sugar metabolism of the cells. The distiller’s choice of strain can depend on different conditions related to heat development, fermentation substrate conditions, or desired production efficiencies. Fermentis yeasts are adaptable to various substrates under different conditions and can ferment in multiple mediums. In many cases, multiple strains offer the right characteristics to ferment a specific wash for a spirit. We also offer strains that demonstrate the ability to ferment just about any sugar they encounter. Having choices helps distillers by offering a wide range of possibilities when selecting a yeast for their unique facility and specific type of fermentable sugar substrate. Some distillers will use the same strain on many different products helping them streamline their protocol systems and manage their supply purchases.”

  Included in those strain choices are the SafSpirit and SafTeq lines. SafSpirit yeast strains are selected to give a range of choice for an array of different sugar substrates to help the distiller more easily reach their goals. SafTeq yeasts are primarily chosen to ferment agave-based musts, which are very rich in fructose and can have larger amounts of furfural and saponin, both considered toxins and inhibitors of the fermentation process. Providing strains that tolerate these toxins helps the distiller achieve complete fermentation of the agave sugars.

  “Fermentis offers a wide range of yeast strains for the distilled spirits world,” said Jones. “Our yeast’s ease of use and directed capacity to ferment various sugar substrates give distillers many choices with regards to their fermentation challenges while keeping the process as simple as possible. Understanding that no facility or situation is the same offers Fermentis an opportunity to assist the distiller in finding the best yeast and protocol to reach their goals. Every distillery has different equipment and support services for fermentation, so each producer must consider fermenter size, shape, cooling capacity, desired alcohol targets, intended flavors and desired aroma. Then, having a yeast supplier that can successfully assist you using these parameters ensures that your production expectations are met while saving time and money.”

  Jones said that many distillers come to Fermentis aware of their production capacities and are absolute in what they want as far as fermentation goals. Others will have a general idea but are searching for the right product to develop new functionality and flavor ideals. Most want to find a way to differentiate their product from others by choosing a strain and protocol that provides uniqueness. All of these methods are successful and can result in a significantly different product from other market offerings.

  “Fermentis will always be there to offer help, advice and information to steer a distillery towards a successful product delivery,” said Jones. “We are finding that many fermentations still won’t have the complete nutrition needed to have proper growth and metabolism. Finding the yeast strains and derivatives that work well with nutritionally deficient sugar substrates seems to be a general need within the industry. Fermentis has taken the lead in producing yeast-derived products that enhance those sugar substrates lacking the necessary nutrients needed for optimal yeast performance. Then, once a distiller becomes accomplished in fermentation, they’ll usually begin to consider flavors and aromas. The aroma of spirits consists of several hundreds of flavor active compounds produced at every stage of the process. Most of these substances are yeast metabolites produced during the fermentation process. Favorably enhancing the development of these metabolites seems to be the trend in spirit designed fermentations.”

  Jones told Beverage Master Magazine that Fermentis adds incredible value to each of their customer’s fermentation needs by consistently providing their technical and sales managers with the latest research information from their France-based research and development facility, including intuitive conclusions and details about each strain within a variety of different fermentation situations. With this information, distillers can make the right choices in yeast strains to reach their fermentation goals.

Experience and Expertise Lead to New and Successful Adaptations

  Reaching fermentation goals is also a priority of Maryse Bolzon, Global Craft Distilling Manager of Lallemand Biofuels & Distilled Spirits, a global leader in the development, production and marketing of yeast, bacteria and specialty ingredients.

  “In a distillery, whatever the size, the only way to produce ethanol and get that desired distinctive and unique aromatic profile is to choose the right yeast strain and use it in the correct conditions during fermentation,” said Bolzon. “One of the magical qualities of yeast is that you can make changes within the conditions of fermentation while using the same yeast and get noticeably different results. Subjecting the same yeast strain to different temperatures or different feedstocks will give similar yet distinctively different aromatic profiles to your spirits. Distilling yeast uses various types of sugar depending on the raw materials used and can reach higher ethanol content, ferment in stressful conditions, and develop deep aromas and flavors. Ultimately, the strain you choose should be aligned with the substrates used and under what conditions your fermentation occurs.”

  For example, Bolzon said that in the production of whiskey, scotch and bourbon, selected yeasts should work well on grain under a wide range of temperatures, and as long as the substrates are similar, you can use the same strain of yeast with all of them. Conversely, different substrates, like those in rum, produce different sugars, requiring different yeast strains. If you work with 100% malted grain at 34 degrees Celsius throughout the fermentation process, you couldn’t use the same yeast strain when working with molasses under the same conditions. Rum uses glucose, fructose and sucrose, while whiskey will have glucose and maltose.

  “Saying that, we understand how important it is to take the time to research and choose the correct yeast strains by researching and matching them with the types of sugars that they ferment,” said Bolzon. “Some ferment glucose and fructose, others fructose, maltose and maltotriose. Some will never ferment fructose under any conditions. There are a lot of choices, so consideration is always given to the spirit being crafted and the substrate in use, whether it’s grain, molasses, agave, syrup, fresh juice or something else, and we always look at the distillery’s fermentation and distillation conditions.”

  A yeast supplier should be both a partner and assistant in the craft distiller’s process. They should understand the distiller’s identity and branding needs as much as the fermentation process and distillation conditions to provide the appropriate yeast strains to fit the distiller’s needs.

  “Of course, choose a supplier that will provide dedicated technical support,” said Bolzon. “Within LBDS, our technical support is the cornerstone of our identity, with all team members having practical backgrounds in fermentation and distillation. We work closely with craft distillers to ensure that the yeast, nutrients, enzymes and bacteria chosen will provide the desired results. Our yeasts are stored in warehouses under optimal conditions, meaning no heat or direct sunlight. Our yeast is distributed in a dried state, meaning that we have removed the water, including the membrane. The membrane is critical to where the sugars, vitamins and minerals enter and the ethanol and other metabolites exit. If these exchanges do not work optimally, the yeast will not work properly and cause weak, sluggish or stuck fermentation. Making your yeast happy is always the key to successful fermentation, so if you’re working under potentially stressful conditions and want higher ethanol content, we recommend rehydrating the yeast before adding it to the fermenter. After purchase, the yeast should be stored in dry areas away from heat or direct sunlight. Because our yeast is sparged with inert gas and vacuum packed, you have up to three years shelf-life storage capability as long as the vacuum packaging remains intact.”

  Bolzon said that LBDS is always happy to work with the distillers and assist them with producing dedicated spirits. Some distillers know exactly what they want in a yeast strain, others ask for help and support in developing their spirits, and others already have the knowledge but prefer to collaborate.

  “I think as an industry, we cover the basic needs of distillers, meaning good fermentation kinetics, quality stress resistance and exceptional aromatic profiles,” said Bolzon. “But within LBDS, we believe that a distinctive spirit needs more than the basics. Perfection comes in the details, so we are constantly working to make improvements and offer new and stronger yeast strains that bump up bacteria synergy, impact nutrition and deliver more distinctive profiles. Every day, we have new questions about fermentation on specific substrates like coconut juice, exotic fruits, various syrups and more. These types of questions push us to a better understanding of raw material characteristics, leading to better yeasts, processes and partnerships with distillers.”

  “To me, the most important thing is to make sure that the craft distiller receives quality technical support when needed to assist not only in yeast choices but also on processes like fermentation times, temperatures, nutrition information, and distillation procedures,” said Bolzon. “Within LBDS, we have Research & Development labs in the United States and Canada. We focus on the kinetics and aromatic profiles of our current strains. We work on adapting new strains to be successful under stressful conditions, and we work on providing strains that work under higher temperatures, benefitting the craft distiller that finds the cost of fermenter cooling prohibitive. We follow current trends, including the development of strains that enhance the aromas of distilled spirits.”

  “In the end, the most important thing for us as a yeast supplier is to understand what the distiller is looking to accomplish with their product,” said Bolzon. “After all, that spirit will reflect their personality, brand and identity, so we must do all we can to help them with their goal of distilling a distinctive, unique product.”

Freeland Spirits:

Women-Inspired, Women-Owned, Women-Centric

By: Becky Garrison 

Upon stepping into Freeland Spirits’ northwest Portland distillery, I feel like I’m walking in a spring meadow even during these gray Portland days. I’ve entered into a space that has a different feel than your typical distillery. Freeland’s medium blue exterior and eggshell interior lift my spirits and give me a serene vibe, as though I’m in a yoga studio. Their signature teardrop glass bottles contribute to this warm and relaxing feel. The comforts extended to the restrooms, which are stocked with feminine hygiene products and offer changing tables, items seldom found in the distilleries I’ve frequented.

  As Freeland Spirits founder Jill Kuehler reflected, these design aesthetics symbolize the women-centric nature of this distillery. “We worked with a team of female designers to take the aesthetic of our model and the values we represent and turn it into physical spaces. I feel like every com-ponent really matches who we are.”

  Take, for example, that teardrop bottle design. Obviously, Kuehler cannot be present in a liquor store to explain the distillery’s unique attributes whenever a customer peruses bottles of spirits. Hence, she wanted to design a bottle that could tell the distillery’s story for them. Kuehler worked with a designer in Brooklyn to create the design she feels pays homage to Oregon agriculture, born from months of Pacific Northwest raindrops. She also wanted to recognize the Teardrop Lounge in northwest Portland because the owner was very helpful when they first started out.

  Prior to founding Freeland, Kuehler ran Zenger Farm, an educational farm in east Portland that teaches approximately 10,000 kids annually where good food comes from. From this experience, she dreamt of launching a distillery with a focus on producing spirits using the best Oregonian products while also celebrating the women pioneers who make this region unique. While drink-ing Kentucky Bourbon with her friend Cory Carmen, owner of eastern Oregon-based Carmen Ranch, Carmen expressed an interest in incorporating small scale grain production at her ranch along with beef and chickens. She offered to grow the rye if Kuehler made Bourbon from it.

  Thus, Freeland Spirits was born in 2017. Kuehler chose the name Freeland because it’s her mother’s and grandmother Meemaw’s last name. She grew up in Meemaw’s garden and observed how, as the family’s primary breadwinner, Meemaw broke through many boundaries. A “good Christian woman,” Meemaw never touched alcohol. So, when asked how Meemaw would respond to having a distillery named after her, Kuehler laughed. “I think she’d roll over in her grave, but she would secretly be proud.”

  From its inception, the distillery highlighted women producers and distillers. For example, Kuehler brought on board women like Molly Troupe, who has the distinction of being the youngest master distiller in the United States. According to Kuehler, “Molly’s Master’s in distilling from Scotland is worth noting. At the end of the day, it was her credentials, creativity and desire to create the very best spirits, not just her gender, that drew me to her. She was the very best person for the job.”

  All other key staffers are women, though they occasionally hire men. “Our founding story is launched by women, but we’re for everyone,” Kuehler said.

  Launching a women-owned and operated distillery proved to be brutal in terms of securing financing. Only 2% of venture capital funding gets invested in women-owned businesses. Also, the commercial real estate market remains dominated by men.

  “You’ve got a lot stacked against you, particularly when trying to do something so capital intensive,” Kuehler said.

  Initially, Kuehler set up shop in space offered by Aria Gin. Since Ryan Csanky distilled his ini-tial batches of gin in space provided by Bull Run Distillery, he delighted in helping another local distillery by doing likewise. Since opening Freeland Spirits in 2018, Kuehler continues this tradition by helping other distillers launch their own small-batch craft spirits.

  While waiting for its first batch of Bourbon to mature, Freeland Spirits distilled and marketed Freeland Gin, which is crafted by hand in small batches. Kuehler found herself drawn to gin due to the infinite number of botanicals one can play with to develop a unique spin on a classic spirit. She sourced fresh botanicals from local farmers’ markets and area farms, such as Vibrant Valley Farms, based in nearby Sauvie Island.

  “For us, it was creating a gin that reflects what Meemaw’s garden gin would taste like,” she said.

  Freeland Gin uses 19 botanicals distilled using two different techniques. Fourteen botanicals are traditionally distilled using a copper pot column still, nicknamed Hell Bitch, while the remaining botanicals are cold distilled. This difference allows for the preservation of delicate fresh ingredi-ents like cucumber, rosemary, mint and thyme. These fresh ingredients are still macerated in high proof alcohol before being distilled in small batches using a Roto Vap.

  In November 2018, the distillery launched Freeland Bourbon, a spirit that pays homage to the South, and Meemaw, in particular. Charred American oak barrels produce notes of caramel, va-nilla and spice. Then, the Bourbon is finished for five months in Elk Cove Pinot Noir barrels, which adds an element of the Pacific Northwest terroir to the whiskey.

  Next, Kuehler added Freeland’s Geneva to the lineup, a spirit inspired by genever, gin’s Dutch grandmother. The geneva showcases Oregon rye with an array of savory botanicals and hints of Willamette Valley hazelnuts, along with citrus-forward products designed to bring out some of the rye flavors.

  Freeland’s newest offering is Freeland Dry Gin, a navy-strength London Dry gin, which Kuehler made for “those strong gals who desire an equally strong gin.” Its concentrated and bold taste leads with juniper followed by a hint of citrus and notes of green olive, Pacific Northwest pine forest and mulled spices.

  The distillery recently joined the canned cocktail craze with its Gin & Tonic canned cocktail. Freeland Gin is paired with Portland Syrups Rose Tonic for a bright citrus sensation along with fresh herbs like juniper and roses. This cocktail was developed in collaboration with Freeland’s bar manager and bartending team and became a local favorite, receiving high marks from The Portland Mercury and other outlets. In 2020, another canned cocktail became available – a French 75 made using Freeland’s flagship gin and Chehalem Chardonnay wine.

As Freeland expanded, it continued with a womencentric focus. In 2019, Lee Hedgmon came on board. Hedgmon is a native Oregonian and woman of color who began brewing in 2004 with a focus on fermented beverages such as beer, mead, wine and cider. She also founded The Barreled Bee, a fermented honey, which is sold in the Freeland Spirits bottle shop.

  The distillery also launched Freeland Free Spirits, a celebration of female-identified Oregonians who are breaking the glass ceiling. Each month, they choose a person who works with Freeland’s tasting room manager to design a specialty cocktail for that month. All proceeds from the cock-tail go towards the person’s charity of choice. Currently, portions of this program have been put on hold due to Covid-19.

  Another women-centric collaboration is the bestselling cocktail kit Queen RBG (rose, bergamot, ginger), a tribute to the late U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, which benefits Planned Parenthood Advocates of Oregon. Other local collaborations include partnerships with Kate’s Ice Cream, Portland Bloody Mary, Portland Soda Works and Pie Spot.

  For whiskey connoisseurs, Freeland Spirits launched a private barrel program where someone can pay for a barrel, and when it’s is ready, they get the first 24 bottles that come off that barrel. Other offerings have included whiskey making and cocktail classes.

  While the physical distillery remains closed to the public due to the global pandemic, Freeland Spirits continues to offer curbside pickup of spirits and cocktail kits in Portland, along with ship-ping throughout Oregon. Freeland Spirits can also be found in select stores in Washington State, California, New York and Illinois.

For more information, go to their website…http://www.freelandspirits.com

Ontario’s Strict Liquor Laws

By: Alyssa Andres

In Canada, each province is governed under its own liquor laws. In the province of Ontario, there is a multitude of guidelines, fees and licenses required to successfully become a producer or supplier, many of which are not found in other provinces across the country. The restrictions, guidelines, and costs associated with the production, importation and sale of alcohol in the province impact the market for producers and consumers alike. By enforcing such strict laws, the Ontario government limits the province’s ability to showcase its top quality products and dissuades international suppliers and manufacturers from importing their goods from other regions. 

  Manufacturers in Ontario must prepare for substantial start-up costs and to spend a lot of time in the initial phases of business planning before starting production. Separate licenses are required before producing, selling and storing alcoholic beverages, and packaging guidelines, as well as chemical analysis of each product, are required once these licenses are obtained. For suppliers, it means facing mark-ups of well over 100% and tight restrictions on the import, distribution and sale of products. For consumers, it means selections tend to be limited, prices are higher than average and there are very few places to obtain alcoholic beverages.

  The body controlling the alcohol, tobacco and cannabis industries is the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario. This body is responsible for forming the Liquor Control Act and administering liquor licenses beyond the federal license required to produce alcohol in Canada. The AGCO also oversees most aspects of alcohol sales and service in Ontario. This means they not only control the manufacturing of alcohol but also the distribution and sale of any kind, including bars, restaurants and private events.

  The initial step in becoming a brewer, distiller or winemaker in Ontario is to obtain a federal license to manufacture alcohol in Canada. According to the Government of Canada website, one must prove that they are of legal age and have sufficient resources to conduct a business before applying for the license, which does not carry with it any fees on its own. This license allows producers to manufacture alcohol in bulk, but producers must pay an excise duty once the alcohol is packaged to store it on-site. In Canada, as of April 2020, spirits containing more than 7% alcohol by volume are subject to an excise duty of $12.61 per litre of absolute ethyl alcohol. The only way around paying an excise duty at the time of packaging is to apply for an excise warehouse license that allows manufacturers to store non-duty paid packaged spirits for an extended period.

  Once a producer is licensed by the federal government to produce bulk alcohol, the AGCO requires a separate manufacturer’s license to sell the wine, beer or spirit within the province. The AGCO has strict guidelines surrounding where alcohol may be sold in the province. The Liquor Control Board of Ontario is the main outlet for alcohol sales in Ontario. There are 666 LCBO stores across Ontario responsible for providing the Ontario public with spirits, wine and beer in quantities of less than 12 units per case. A separate chain known as The Beer Store, also mandated by the AGCO, provides Ontarians with cases of beer. If a producer or supplier does not have this license, they will not be allowed to sell their product in the province.

   In 2017, Ontario started allowing a limited number of grocery stores with proper licensing to carry beer and wine, but, according to the AGCO website, these premises must also sell a variety of food products that must occupy at least 10,000 square feet of the retail space. Therefore, only large chain grocery stores are eligible for these permits, and there are only about 450 grocery stores that carry alcohol in the province.

  For breweries and distilleries to operate retail shops out of their own facilities, another license must be issued, even once producers have successfully obtained a manufacturer’s license. Yet another license is required to operate a “Tied House” or restaurant facility out of a brewery or distillery. Each of these licenses carries with it separate fees and must be renewed every two years. Since many Ontario breweries and distilleries are in remote towns across the province, the best way to get their product into the hands of the general public is to apply to have them on the shelves of the LCBO.

  According to the LCBO, they review over 50,000 submissions annually from producers and suppliers trying to sell their products through this system. Even products already approved must reapply for the license every two years. Per the AGCO licensing guide, to be eligible to apply for a Liquor Sales License, producers must submit their federal license to manufacture, a registered business name, a summary of their business plan, including detailed floor plans of their facilities, a marketing plan and images of the bottle/packaging of the product. The roughly nine-week process of approving product submission ends with an LCBO chemical analysis. This LCBO analysis is done on every active product on the shelves once a year, at the suppliers’ expense, to ensure quality. Once approved, the product then has to go through label and packaging reviews.

  The LCBO also has extremely specific requirements surrounding the labeling of not only the packaging of alcoholic beverages but also on shipping containers and cases. While many provinces follow general Canadian guidelines for packaging requirements, Ontario has developed its own set of rules. A 64-page document entitled LCBO Product Packaging Standards dictates not only what information is present on the bottle but also gives incredibly detailed guidelines on everything from the size and placement of this information to the “print contrast standard.” If a product doesn’t adhere to these standards, a producer must go back and have the label or shipping package redesigned.

  Once the product makes it to Ontario liquor store shelves, the LCBO must adhere to the LCA standards for minimum pricing. This means, according to the LCBO Pricing Standards Guide, updated in April 2020, a 750mL bottle of Canadian whisky sold by a supplier to the LCBO for $6.16 and charged a federal excise duty of $3.71 ($12.61/LAA) would end up on retail shelves for $27.50 after being marked up a standard rate of 139.7%. Of that total revenue, $16.17 goes to the Ontario government and $4.92 to the Canadian federal government, with only $6.21 making it to the supplier after a $0.20 container deposit. Manufacturers must adhere to this uniform pricing even when selling from their own bottle shops, with most of the revenue going to government bodies.

  These taxes and guidelines mean the selection and quality of products on the shelves at the LCBO are not always impressive. Many international producers will not bother applying at all. Many of the province’s most talented producers are too small and cannot afford to. As a result, the representation of Ontario beer, wine and spirits in the LCBO doesn’t always showcase the incredible quality of the local industry.

  However, the Ontario government has made some changes to its liquor laws this past year to aid businesses in the food and beverage industry that have struggled with closures and other factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The government started allowing restaurants and bars to sell sealed alcoholic beverages for takeaway. They also amended a law prohibiting alcohol delivery to private residences, allowing third-party services such as Uber Eats to deliver liquor from restaurants without a special license. These laws, originally considered temporary, have become a permanent amendment to the Liquor Licence Act as they encourage consumers to support local sources when purchasing alcohol for their homes.

  For a brief moment, on December 4, 2020, the LCBO attempted to offer this same delivery service from its stores by pairing with SkipTheDishes but was met with serious backlash from local restaurants who are now relying on alcohol takeout and delivery to pay their bills. As a result, on December 6, 2020, the LCBO paused this initiative.

  As the COVID-19 pandemic rages on and the entire province of Ontario remains in lockdown until at least January 23, 2021, the Government of Ontario will have to continue making adjustments to its rules and restrictions to allow businesses in the province to continue to operate. The hospitality industry has been one of the hardest hit by pandemic restrictions, with most indoor dining in the province’s major cities suspended for most of the year. Those allowed to operate have been limited to 50% capacity and forced to close by 9:00 p.m. each night. This means the licensee sale of alcohol dramatically decreased in 2020. There are many businesses in Ontario that are depending on government subsidizing to stay in operation.

  As the AGCO and the federal government continue to collect from the soaring sale of alcohol in Ontario, while manufacturers, suppliers and licensees in the liquor industry continue to suffer, the province’s small businesses rely on the provincial government’s aid. It is the hope that as the world evolves with the COVID-19 pandemic, so too will the laws surrounding liquor in the province of Ontario.